Monday, February 23, 2015

1945 US Marines raise flag on Iwo Jima


February, 23, 1945

 On February 23, 1945 Associated Press photographer Joe Rosenthal shot the most memorable photograph of World War II, a simple, stirring image of five Marines and one Navy corpsman raising the flag at Iwo Jima. In 1945 Joe Rosenthal was 33, as an AP photographer assigned to the Pacific theater of the war, he had distinguished himself in battles at New Guinea, Hollandia, Guam, Peleliu and Angaur. Iwo Jima was the costliest battle in Marine Corps history. Its toll of 6,821 Americans dead, 5,931 of them Marines, accounted for nearly one-third of all Marine Corps losses in all of World War II. Ten years after the flag-raising, Rosenthal wrote: "Out of the corner of my eye, I had seen the men start the flag up. I swung my camera and shot the scene. That is how the picture was taken, and when you take a picture like that, you don't come away saying you got a great shot. You don't know." It has been called the greatest photograph of all time.

It served as the symbol for the Seventh War Loan Drive, for which it was plastered on 3.5 million posters.

It was used on a postage stamp and on the cover of countless magazines and newspapers.

It served as the model for the Marine Corps War Memorial in Arlington, Va., a symbol forever of the valor and sacrifices of the U.S. Marines. Assembly work on the statue started Sept. 13, 1954.

 In 2005 the US mint issued a commemorative silver dollar featuring the image. It honors the 230th anniversary of the founding of the Marine Corps, the first time the government has struck a commemorative coin to salute a branch of the military.

Rosenthal heard that a flag was being raised atop Mount Suribachi. He hurried toward Suribachi, lugging along his Speed Graphic camera. Along the way, he came across two Marine photographers, Pfc. Bob Campbell, shooting still pictures, and Staff Sgt. Bill Genaust, shooting movies. The three men proceeded up the mountain together. Rosenthal: "Out of the corner of my eye, I had seen the men start the flag up. I swung my camera and shot the scene. That is how the picture was taken, and when you take a picture like that, you don't come away saying you got a great shot. You don't know." Sgt. Genaust, who was standing almost shoulder-to-shoulder with Rosenthal about thirty yards away, was shooting motion-picture film during the second flag-raising. His film captures the second event at an almost-identical angle to Rosenthal's famous shot. Newsreel Bloody Iwo

 Three Marines depicted in the photograph, Harlon Block, Franklin Sousley, and Michael Strank, were killed in action over the next few days. The three surviving flag-raisers were Marines Rene Gagnon, Ira Hayes, and sailor John Bradley.

Holding the original Iwo Jima flag are from left to right: Pvt. Ira Hayes, U.S. Marine Corp., pharmacist's mate John H. Bradley, U.S. Navy; Pvt. Rene Gagnon, U.S. Marine Corp.

Joe Rosenthal 1945
Johnny cash The ballad of Ira Hayes


1455 - Johannes Gutenberg prints his first book, Bible (estimated date)

1540 - Francisco Vázquez de Coronado's expedition sets off from Mexico in search of the 7 cities of Cibola

1685 - George Frideric Handel, born in Halle Germany, composer 

1792 - Joseph Haydn's 94th Symphony in G premieres

1821 - John Keats, Romantic poet, dies of tuberculosis at 25 in Rome

1836 - Alamo besieged for 13 days until 6th March by Mexican army under General Santa Anna; entire garrison eventually killed

1847 - Battle of Buena Vista Mexico; Zachary Taylor defeats Mexicans

1848 - John Quincy Adams, 6th US President (1825-1829), dies of a stroke at 80

1855 - Carl Friedrich Gauss, mathematician, dies

1868 - William E B Du Bois, born in Great Barrington Massachusetts
 civil rights activist and writer 

1884 - Tambo Tambo, Australian aboriginal/US circus attaction, dies at 23

1886 - Aluminum manufacturing process developed

1887 - Congress grants Seal Rocks to SF

1889 - Victor Fleming, born in La Canada, California film director
("Wizard of Oz", "Gone with the Wind"), (d. 1949)

1892 - Kathleen Harrison, actress born in Blackburn, Lancashire

1896 - Tootsie Roll introduced by Leo Hirshfield

1899 - Norman Taurog, American film director (d. 1981)

1900 - Steamer "Rio de Janeiro" sinks in SF Bay

1903 - The US and Cuba sign an agreement by which Cuba releases Guantanamo and Bahia Hondo to the US for naval stations

1904 - US acquired control of the Panama Canal Zone for $10 million

1904 - Having occupied Korea, Japan signs a treaty with Korea under which it becomes a Japanese protectorate in return for Japanese protection from other powers

1905 - Rotary Club International formed by 4 men in Chicago

1915 - Paul Tibbets, born in Quincy, Illinois US Air Force retired Brigadier General and Pilot of B-29 "Enola Gay" over Hiroshima (d. 2007)

1916 - Congress authorizes McKinley Memorial $1 gold coin

1916 - French artillery kills entire French 72nd division at Samogneux Verdun

1918 - First victory of Red Army over the Kaiser's German troops near Narva and Pskov. Since 1923 this date become the Day of Red Army in honour of this victory.

1919 - Fascist Party forms in Italy by Benito Mussolini

1921 - 1st US transcontinental air mail flight arrives in NYC from San Francisco

1927 - Pres. Calvin Coolidge creates Federal Radio Commission (FRC)

1930 - Mabel Normand, actress/director, dies at 35

1931 - Nellie Melba, [Helen Mitchell], Australian soprano, dies

1931 - Tom Wesselmann, born in New York, NY artist and sculptor

1932 - Majel Barrett, born in  Cleveland, Ohio actress

1934 - Casey Stengel becomes manager of Brooklyn Dodgers

1934 - Coronation of King Leopold III of Belgium

1936 - 1st rocket air mail flight, Greenwood Lake, NY

1938 - Joe Louis KOs Nathan Mann in 3 for heavyweight boxing title

1940 - Walt Disney's animated movie "Pinocchio," released

1942 - Japanese sub fires on oil refinery in Ellwood, Calif.

1944 - Johnny Winter, [John Dawson], American blues guitarist (Silver Train),
born in Leland Miss, (d. 2014) Johnny Winter - Highway 61 Revisited

1954 - 1st mass inoculation with salk vaccine (Pittsburgh)

1954 - Syrian army drives out president Adib el-Shishakli

1965 - Stan Laurel, comedian dies of heart attack at 74

1966 - Military coup in Syria ends Bitar government

1967 - 25th amendment (US Presidential succession) adopted

1968 - Fannie Hurst, US author dies at 78

1974 - Florence Rice, actress dies at 63

1976 - Fuzzy Knight, actor dies at 74

1979 - Frank Peterson Jr named 1st black general in Marine Corps

1987 - Supernova 1987A in LMC 1st seen; 1st naked-eye supernova since 1604

1991 - Military coup in Thailand, Premier Choonhaven arrested

1995 - Art Kane, photographer, dies at 69

1997 - NBC TV shows "Schindler's List" completely uncensored, 65M watch

1997 - Tony Williams, jazz musician, dies at 51

1998 - Philip Abbott, actor (Arthur Ward-FBI), dies at 74

1998 - Osama bin Laden publishes a fatwa declaring jihad against all Jews and Crusaders.

2004 - Carl Anderson, American singer dies of leukemia (b. 1945)

2004 - Don Cornell, singer dies from emphysema and diabetes at the age of 84

2007 - Japan launches its fourth spy satellite, stepping up its ability to monitor potential threats such as North Korea.

2007 - Donnie Brooks, singer dies of a heart attack (b. 1936)

2008 - a B-2 Spirit of the USAF crashes at Guam. The crew survived but the aircraft was written off, making it the most expensive air crash in human history (the aircraft alone cost $1.2Bn). The B-2 had a perfect safety record before the crash; not one B-2 ever crashed.

2010 - Unknown criminals pour more than 2.5 million litres of diesel oil and other hydrocarbons into the river Lambro, in Northern Italy, causing an environmental disaster.


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